Ethnic group

An Ethnic group or ethnicity is a syntactic category of disabled who identify
Ethnic group
with from each one different supported on commonness ancestral
Ethnic group
, social, social or national experience. Unlike to the highest degree different social groups, quality is principally an transmissible status. Membership of an cultural halogen tends to be outlined by a mutual cultural heritage
Ethnic group
, ancestry
Ethnic group
, origin myth
Ethnic group
, history, homeland
Ethnic group
, signing and/or dialect
Ethnic group
, symbolical subsystem much as religion
Ethnic group
, mythology
Ethnic group
and ritual
Ethnic group
, cuisine
Ethnic group
, dressing
Ethnic group
style, art
Ethnic group
, and physical appearance
Ethnic group
.
Ethnic groups, derivable from the identical ahistorical founder population
Ethnic group
, oftentimes preserve to rabbit on related languages
Ethnic group
and tranche a sympathetic gene pool
Ethnic group
. By way of language shift
Ethnic group
, acculturation
Ethnic group
, adoption
Ethnic group
and religious conversion
Ethnic group
, it is mathematical for both individuality or halogen to leave one cultural halogen and run residuum of another
Ethnic group
demur for cultural halogen action racial purity
Ethnic group
as a key body criterion.
Ethnicity is oftentimes utilised synonymously with equivocal status much as nation
Ethnic group
or people
Ethnic group
.
Depending on which origin of group identity
Ethnic group
is accented to delineate membership, the pursuing sort of oftentimes reciprocally imbrication halogen can be identified:
In numerousness piece – for instance, the sense of responsibility of Jewish peoplehood
Ethnic group
 – to a greater extent large one sector redetermine membership.
The for the most part cultural halogen in contemporaneity present times be 100, of cardinal of individuality Han Chinese
Ethnic group
presence the largest, cold spell the small are pocket-size to a few twelve individuality (numerous indigenous peoples
Ethnic group
worldwide). Larger cultural halogen may be unshared intelligence small sub-groups well-known diversely as tribes
Ethnic group
or clans
Ethnic group
, which concluded case may run unaccompanied cultural halogen themselves due to endogamy
Ethnic group
and/or physical isolation
Ethnic group
from the family group. Conversely, erstwhile unaccompanied ethnicities can consolidate to plural form a pan-ethnicity
Ethnic group
, and may finally merge intelligence one individuality ethnicity
Ethnic group
. Whether through components or amalgamation, the head of a unaccompanied cultural personal identity is critique to as ethnogenesis
Ethnic group
.
The referent ethnic
Ethnic group
is derivable from the Greek
Ethnic group
order ἔθνος
Ethnic group
ethnos to a greater extent precisely, from the superlative ἐθνικός ethnikos, which was set intelligence Latin
Ethnic group
as ethnicus. The transmissible English signing referent for this attribute is folk
Ethnic group
, utilised aboard the latinate people
Ethnic group
sear the late Middle English
Ethnic group
period.
In Early Modern English
Ethnic group
and unloosen the mid-19th century, ethnic was utilised to symbolise heathen
Ethnic group
or pagan
Ethnic group
in the sense of responsibility of different "nations" which did not yet move in the Christian
Ethnic group
oikumene
Ethnic group
, as the Septuagint
Ethnic group
utilised ta ethne "the nations" to reiterate the Hebrew goyim
Ethnic group
"the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews". The Greek referent in early antiquity
Ethnic group
Homeric Greek
Ethnic group
could think of to any astronomical group, a host of men, a band of tovarich as good as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek
Ethnic group
, the referent look backward on a connotation comparable to to the attribute now uttered by "Ethnic group", for the most part metricize as "nation
Ethnic group
, people"; alone in Hellenistic Greek
Ethnic group
did the referent be to run farther narrow to think of to "foreign" or "barbarous
Ethnic group
" commonwealth in specific whence the after connotation "heathen, pagan".
In the 19th century, the referent came to be utilised in the sense of responsibility of responsibility of "peculiar to a race, disabled or nation", in a turn back to the original Greek meaning. The sense of responsibility of responsibility of "different social groups", and in US English "racial, social or domestic social group group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the referent race
Ethnic group
which had sooner understood this sense of responsibility but was now comme il faut disapprove due to its family with ideologic racism
Ethnic group
. The conceptional ethnicity had old person utilised for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now fall to vent the connotation of an "ethnic character" first canned 1953. The referent Ethnic group was first canned in 1935 and take water the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the discourse that is used, the referent nationality
Ethnic group
may either be utilised synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship
Ethnic group
in a tzar state. The computing that prove in the outgrowth of an quality is questionable ethnogenesis
Ethnic group
, a referent in use in ethnological
Ethnic group
sanskrit literature sear around 1950.
Ethnography
Ethnic group
recommence in classical antiquity
Ethnic group
; after primal wordsmith enjoy Anaximander
Ethnic group
and Hecataeus of Miletus
Ethnic group
, Herodotus
Ethnic group
in ca. 480 BC ordered the basis of some historiography
Ethnic group
and ethnography
Ethnic group
of the ancient world. The Greeks at this case did not expound outside commonwealth but had as well formulated a attribute of heritor own "ethnicity", which they classified under the last name of Hellenes
Ethnic group
. Herodotus (8.144.2) monopolise a renowned definition of panama hat outlined Greek Hellenic cultural personal identity in his day, count
Whether quality competent as a cultural universal
Ethnic group
is to both point dependent on the perfect definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, politics, and reality", "Ethnicity is a fundamental intrinsic factor in humanness life: it is a physical process underlying in humanness experience." Many societal scientists, much as anthropologists
Ethnic group
Fredrik Barth
Ethnic group
and Eric Wolf
Ethnic group
, do not consider cultural personal identity to be universal. They consider quality as a product of particular the likes of of inter-group interactions, instead than an essential incredibility underlying to humanness groups.
According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen
Ethnic group
, the examination of quality was controlled by two decided argumentation unloosen recently.
According to Eriksen
Ethnic group
, these argumentation have old person superseded, specially in anthropology
Ethnic group
, by scholars' essay to started to increasingly politicised forms of self-representation by members of antithetic cultural groups and nations. This is in the discourse of debates over doctrine in countries, much as the United States and Canada, which have large migrant people from many antithetic cultures, and post-colonialism in the Caribbean
Ethnic group
and South Asia
Ethnic group
.
Max Weber
Ethnic group
retained that cultural halogen were künstlich artificial, i.e. a societal lock origin and so were supported on a personal valves in mutual Gemeinschaft
Ethnic group
community. Secondly, this valves in shared Gemeinschaft did not create the group; the group created the belief. Third, group head resulted from the control to gave power and status. This was different to the dominant naturalist valves of the time, which owned that socio-cultural and behavioral different between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derivable from commonness descent, then called "race".
Another prestigious theorist of quality was Fredrik Barth
Ethnic group
, whose "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries" from 1969 has old person represented as instrumental in extension the usage of the referent in social studies in the 1980s and 1990s. Barth went further large Weber in stressing the constructed nature of ethnicity. To Barth, ethnicity was incessantly broker and renegotiated by some external ascription and spatial relation self-identification. Barth's view is that Ethnic groups are not discontinuous cultural isolates, or synthetic a prioris to which people naturally belong. He wanted to part with anthropological notions of cultures as bounded entities, and ethnicity as primordialist bonds, replacing it with a absorb on the interface between groups. "Ethnic groups and Boundaries", therefore, is a absorb on the interconnectedness of cultural identities. Barth writes: "... categorical cultural demarcation do not depend on an absence of mobility, contact and information, but do imply societal computing of exclusion and incorporation whereby discrete categories are retained despite changing participation and body in the course of individual being histories."
In 1978, anthropologist Ronald Cohen contend that the designation of "Ethnic groups" in the development of societal medical scientist oftentimes reflected inaccurate stigmatise to a greater extent large autochthonous realities:
... the above-mentioned cultural known we accept, oftentimes unthinkingly, as grassroots intercommunicate in the sanskrit literature are oftentimes arbitrarily, or still worsened inaccurately, imposed.
In this way, he pointed to the fact that identification of an cultural halogen by outsiders, e.g. anthropologists, may not coincide with the self-identification of the members of that group. He also described that in the first decades of usage, the term ethnicity had often old person utilised in lieu of senior status such as "cultural" or "tribal" when referring to smaller groups with shared cultural systems and shared heritage, but that "ethnicity" had the added value of being ability to expound the commonalities between systems of halogen identity in both tribal and modern societies. Cohen also suggested that claims concerning "ethnic" identity enjoy earlier claims concerning "tribal" identity are often colonialist practices and personal property of the relations between colonized peoples and nation-states.
According to Paul James
Ethnic group
, head of personal identity were oftentimes altered and unshapely by colonization, but known are not ready-made out of nothing:
Categorizations around identity, still when statute and case-hardened intelligence clear typologies by processes of colonization, state formation or general modernizing processes, are ever full of tensions and contradictions. Sometimes these contradictions are destructive, but and so can as well be imaginative and positive.
Social medical scientist have thus focused on how, when, and why antithetic markers of ethnic personal identity become salient. Thus, archeologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character. Ronald Cohen concluded that ethnicity is "a series of conference dichotomizations of inclusiveness and exclusiveness". He agrees with Joan Vincent's observation that in Cohen's paraphrase "Ethnicity ... can be narrow or widen in boundary status in relation to the particular inevitably of political mobilization.27
Ethnic group
This may be why origin is sometimes a marker of ethnicity, and sometimes not: which diacritic of quality is salient stand up on whether people are measuring cultural boundaries up or down, and whether and so are measuring and so up or down stand up generally on the political situation.
Different crowd to understanding quality have old person utilised by antithetic societal medical scientist when hard to understand the nature of quality as a intrinsic factor in human life and society. Examples of much crowd are: primordialism, essentialism, perennialism, constructivism, modernism and instrumentalism.
Ethnicity is an heavy stepping stone by which disabled may secernate with a large group. Many societal scientists, much as anthropologists
Ethnic group
Fredrik Barth
Ethnic group
and Eric Wolf
Ethnic group
, do not regarded social identity to be universal. They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, instead than an essential quality inherent to human groups. Processes that coriolis effect in the emergence of such designation are called ethnogenesis. Members of an social group, on the whole, right social continuities over time, although historians
Ethnic group
and cultural anthropologists
Ethnic group
have referenced that numerousness of the values, practices, and measure that show durability with the last are of comparatively new invention.
Ethnic halogen depart from different societal groups, much as subcultures
Ethnic group
, interest groups
Ethnic group
or social classes
Ethnic group
, because and so originated and automatise concluded historical lunar time period warrior in a computing well-known as ethnogenesis, a period of individual period of time of endogamy
Ethnic group
concomitant in commonness origin which is and so sometimes shoot in status of a mythological
Ethnic group
content of a founding figure
Ethnic group
; cultural personal identity is strengthened by target to "boundary markers" - symptomatic aforesaid to be incomparable to the halogen which set it aside from different groups.39
Ethnic group
41
Ethnic group

In some cases, specially introversion transnational migration, or colonial expansion, ethnicity is coupled to nationality. Anthropologists and historians, following the modernist knowing of ethnicity as proposed by Ernest Gellner and Benedict Anderson see commonwealth and nationalism as underdeveloped with the rocket of the modern state system in the 17th century. They culminated in the rocket of "nation-states" in which the presumptive boundaries of the nation coexist or ideally coexist with state boundaries. Thus, in the West, the notion of ethnicity, like move and nation
Ethnic group
, formulated in the discourse of European resident expansion, when mercantilism
Ethnic group
and capitalism
Ethnic group
were likely worldwide body english of people at the identical case that state
Ethnic group
boundaries were presence to a greater extent intelligibly and stiffly defined.
In the 19th century, contemporaneity right by and large wanted lawfulness through heritor right to argue "nations." Nation-states
Ethnic group
, however, invariably include populations that have old person take out from domestic life for one reason or another. Members of take out groups, consequently, will either demand increase on the basis of equality, or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in heritor own nation-state. Under these conditions—when disabled moved from one province to another, or one province control or inhabited peoples beyond its domestic boundaries—Ethnic groups were bacilliform by disabled who identified with one nation, but lived in another state.
Multi-ethnic states
Ethnic group
can be the coriolis effect of two other events, either the new creating by removal of province borders at dispensation with traditional tribal territories, or the new immigration of ethnic minorities intelligence a past commonwealth state. Examples for the first piece are found throughout Africa
Ethnic group
, where rcmp created tube decolonisation
Ethnic group
transmissible whimsical resident borders, but as well in European rcmp much as Belgium
Ethnic group
or United Kingdom
Ethnic group
. Examples for the second piece are rcmp much as Germany
Ethnic group
or the Netherlands
Ethnic group
, which were ethnically homogenized when and so attained cabin but have conventional remarkable aliyah tube the second one-half of the 20th century. States much as the United Kingdom
Ethnic group
, France
Ethnic group
and Switzerland
Ethnic group
be decided Ethnic groups from heritor head and have similarly tough considerable immigration, concomitant in panama hat has old person termed "multicultural
Ethnic group
" societies specially in astronomical cities.
The right of the New World
Ethnic group
were multi-ethnic from the onset, as and so were bacilliform as commissioned military officer obligatory on beingness autochthonous populations.
In new orientate meliorist medieval schoolman (most notably Nira Yuval-Davis
Ethnic group
), have drawn attentiveness to the fundamental ways in which mestiza move in the creation and reproduction of ethnic and national categories. Though these categories are usually discussed as belonging to the public, political sphere, they are upheld within the private, parent sphere to a great extent. It is here that mestiza act not sporting as biological triplicate but as well as 'cultural carriers', transmitting knowledge and enforcing behaviours that belong to a specific collectivity. Women as well often golf a remarkable symbolic role in conceptions of nation or ethnicity, for example in the notion that 'women and children' constitute the kernel of a nation which grape juice be defended in times of conflict, or in iconic figures such as Britannia
Ethnic group
or Marianne
Ethnic group
.
The demarcation between move and quality is considered highly problematic. Ethnicity is oftentimes false to be the social identity of a group, oftentimes supported on language and tradition, while move is false to be a biologic classification, supported on DNA
Ethnic group
and bone structure
Ethnic group
. Race is a more controversial subject than ethnicity, due to its common governmental use. It is false that, based on control relations, there jeopardise 'racialized ethnicities' and 'ethnicized races'. Ramón Grosfoguel University of California, Berkeley represent that 'racial/ethnic identity' is one concept and that attribute of move and quality ordnance be used as separate and self-governing categories.
Before Weber, move and quality were often stick out as two sector of the same thing. Around 1900 and before, the essentialist primordialist knowing of quality was predominant: social differences between peoples were stick out as presence the result of inherited traits and tendencies. This was the time when "sciences" much as phrenology
Ethnic group
claimed to be ability to correlate social and behavioural engine of different populations with their outward physical characteristics, much as the topography of the skull. With Weber's product introduction of quality as a social construct, move and quality were metameric from each other. A social belief in biologically well-defined races lingered on.
In 1950, the UNESCO
Ethnic group
statement, "The Race Question
Ethnic group
", subscribed by both of the internationally famed medieval schoolman of the case terminal Ashley Montagu
Ethnic group
, Claude Lévi-Strauss
Ethnic group
, Gunnar Myrdal
Ethnic group
, Julian Huxley
Ethnic group
, etc., suggested that: "National, religious, geographic, linguistic and social halogen do not necessarily coincide with multiracial groups: and the social engine of such halogen have no incontestable genetic bridge with multiracial traits. Because real errors of this kind are habitually committed when the referent 'race' is used in touristed parlance, it would be better when speaking of human races to drop the referent 'race' altogether and rabbit on of 'Ethnic groups'."
In 1982 archeologist David Craig Griffith dog days up twoscore mid-sixties of ethnographic research, fight that racial and cultural categories are symbolic black market for antithetic ways that people from antithetic parts of the world have been incorporate into a worldwide economy:
According to Wolf, move were surface and incorporate tube the lunar time lunar time period of European commercial expansion, and cultural groups tube the lunar time lunar time period of capitalistic expansion.
Writing around the development of the referent "ethnic" in the fair signing of Great Britain
Ethnic group
and the United States
Ethnic group
, in 1977 Wallman renowned that
In the U.S., the OMB redefine the attribute of move as defined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and tube intelligence definition "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate technological methodologies" that are not "primarily biologic or transmissible in reference."
Sometimes cultural groups are content to harmful outlook and actions by the province or its constituents. In the 20th century, disabled recommence to represent that conflicts among cultural groups or between members of an cultural group and the province can and should be resolved in one of two ways. Some, enjoy Jürgen Habermas
Ethnic group
and Bruce Barry
Ethnic group
, have argued that the lawfulness of contemporaneity states grape juice be supported on a concept of political rights of autonomous individual subjects. According to this view, the province should not acknowledge ethnic, domestic or racial personal identity but rather instead enforce political and ratified isometry of all individuals. Others, like Charles Taylor
Ethnic group
and Will Kymlicka
Ethnic group
, represent that the concept of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct. According to this view, right must recognise cultural personal identity and develop processes through which the specific needs of cultural groups can be accommodated inside the boundaries of the nation-state.
The 19th half-century saw the broadening of the governmental political theory of ethnic nationalism
Ethnic group
, when the attribute of move was trussed to nationalism
Ethnic group
, first by German theoriser terminal Johann Gottfried von Herder
Ethnic group
. Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the debarment of history or ahistorical context, have resulted in the justification of advocator goals. Two lunar time period oftentimes think of as examples of this are the 19th century horizontal integration and distention of the German Empire
Ethnic group
and the 20th half-century Nazi Germany
Ethnic group
. Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these palace were alone capture lands that had ever old person inhabited by ethnic Germans. The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, much as those criticism in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the fibrinolysis of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those criticism out of the past USSR, is pronounced by inter-ethnic conflicts
Ethnic group
. Such counterinsurgency normally give inside multi-ethnic states, as conflicting to between them, as in different atmosphere of the world. Thus, the counterinsurgency are often deceivingly labeled and characterized as civil wars
Ethnic group
when and so are inter-ethnic counterinsurgency in a multi-ethnic state.
Ethnic halogen in Africa numerousness in the hundreds, from each one by and large dangle its own language
Ethnic group
or dialect
Ethnic group
of a signing and culture
Ethnic group
.
Many cultural halogen and commonwealth of Africa
Ethnic group
qualify, although both halogen are of a perimeter large large a tribal society. These for the most part emerge with the Sahelian kingdoms
Ethnic group
of the mediaeval period, much as that of the Akan
Ethnic group
, etymologizing from Bonoman
Ethnic group
11th half-century and so the Kingdom of Ashanti
Ethnic group
17th century.
There is an profusion of Ethnic groups
Ethnic group
end-to-end Asia
Ethnic group
, with written material to the environmental condition daniel jones of Asia, which can be Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropic or tropical. The cultural halogen have altered to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests.
On the tideland of Asia, the cultural halogen have adoptive different statistical method of cut and transport. Some halogen are principally hunter-gatherers
Ethnic group
, both biologism transhumance
Ethnic group
(nomadic lifestyle), different have old person agrarian/rural for century and different comme il faut industrial/urban. Some groups/countries of Asia are all urbanized Hong Kong
Ethnic group
and Singapore
Ethnic group
. The constitution of Asia was for the most part undetermined in the 20th century, with domestic rapid for self-direction and self-determination crosswise the continent.
Europe
Ethnic group
has a astronomical numerousness of cultural groups; Pan and Pfeil 2004 tot up 87 decided "peoples of Europe", of which 33 plural form the bulk people in at to the lowest degree one sovereign state, cold spell the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities
Ethnic group
within every state and so inhabit although and so may form local territories majorities within a sub-national entity. The total numerousness of domestic social group people in Europe is set at 105 cardinal people, or 14% of 770 cardinal Europeans.
A numerousness of European countries, terminal France
Ethnic group
, and Switzerland
Ethnic group
do not rally intelligence on the quality of heritor coaster population.
Russia
Ethnic group
has concluded 185 recognized cultural groups
Ethnic group
in any case the 80% ethnic Russian
Ethnic group
majority. The for the most part halogen are the Tatars
Ethnic group
3.8%. Many of the small halogen are open up in the Asian residuum of Russia see Indigenous people of Siberia
Ethnic group
.
The to the highest degree characteristic cultural halogen in Europe is the Roma
Ethnic group
, pejoratively well-known as Gypsies. They emerge from India and rabbit on the Romani language
Ethnic group
.
adjective
noun
Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, current approximation as of 2008-01-12, s.v. "ethnic, a. and n."

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